What is the electrical resistance of bone?
The DC resistivity of bone is reported to be in the range of 2-5 x 105 ohm-cm (17,18). However, these values are highly dependent on the chemical reactions at the electrode.
Is bone a dielectric?
It is established from the literature that the low frequency (10 Hz–1 GHz) dielectric properties of bone are particularly important in diagnostic applications, as the correlation between the dielectric properties and bone mineral density is more significant than at higher frequencies.
Is bone a heat conductor?
Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK.
Is Bone resistant to electricity?
Bone is the most resistant tissue to electrical flow. Skin impedes electrical current, but resistance is dependent on the skin’s thickness and presence of moisture.
Is Bone conductive to electricity?
One of the properties discovered, was that bones are dielectric. This implies that they themselves are semi-conductive. In addition, they are anisotropic, so not only are bones conductive, they conduct differently depending on the direction of the flow of the current through the bone.
What is piezoelectric effect of bone?
The stress acting on the bone produces the piezoelectric effect. This effect, in turn, attracts bone-building cells (called osteoblasts) because of the formation of electrical dipoles.
Is cartilage a piezoelectric?
Tissues like bone, cartilage, dentin, tendon and keratin can demonstrate direct piezoelectricity . … Due to the piezoelectric property of collagen, it can generate electric signals in response to internal forces. These signals transmitted through ECM to the voltage-gated channels in the cell membrane.
Is calcium a piezoelectric?
Calcium titanate has an orthorhombic crystal structure and should not exhibit piezoelectric behavior. However, in the present study such behavior is observed in nanostructured calcium titanate prepared by sol–gel synthesis and field assisted sintering.