Description Usage Format Source References Examples

The data are on in–flight energy expenditure and body mass from 20 energy studies on three types of flying vertebrates: echolocating bats, non–echolocating bats and non–echolocating birds.

1 |

A data frame with 20 observations on the following 4 variables.

`Species`

species

`Mass`

mass (in grams)

`Type`

a factor with 3 levels indicating the type of flying vertebrate

`Energy`

in–flight energy expenditure (in W)

Ramsey, F.L. and Schafer, D.W. (2002). *The Statistical Sleuth: A
Course in Methods of Data Analysis (2nd ed)*, Duxbury.

Speakman, J.R. and Racey, P.A. (1991). No cost of Echolocation for
Bats in Flight, *Nature* **350**: 421–423.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 | ```
str(case1002)
plot(log(Energy)~log(Mass), case1002,
pch = ifelse(Type=="echolocating bats", 19,
ifelse(Type=="non-echolocating birds", 21, 24)))
plot(Energy~Mass, case1002, log="xy",
xlab = "Body Mass (g) (log scale)",
ylab = "Energy Expenditure (W) (log scale)",
pch = ifelse(Type=="echolocating bats", 19,
ifelse(Type=="non-echolocating birds", 21, 24)))
legend(7, 50, pch=c(24, 21, 19),
c("Non-echolocating bats", "Non-echolocating birds","Echolocating bats"))
library(lattice)
yticks <- c(1,2,5,10,20,50)
xticks <- c(10,20,50,100,200,500)
xyplot(Energy ~ Mass, case1002, groups=Type,
scales = list(log=TRUE, y=list(at=yticks), x=list(at=xticks)),
ylab = "Energy Expenditure (W) (log scale)",
xlab = "Body Mass (g) (log scale)",
auto.key = list(x = 0.2, y = 0.9, corner = c(0, 1), border = TRUE))
``` |

```
'data.frame': 20 obs. of 4 variables:
$ Species: chr "Pteropus gouldii" "Pteropus poliocephalus" "Hypsignathus monstrosus" "Eidolon helvum" ...
$ Mass : num 779 628 258 315 24.3 ...
$ Type : Factor w/ 3 levels "non-echolocating bats",..: 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 ...
$ Energy : num 43.7 34.8 23.3 22.4 2.46 ...
```

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